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See What I Mean?
Visual, Spatial, and Game-Based History Digital scholarship allows historians to integrate visually rich source materials and interactivity into our writing, and several of the contributors to this volume took the opportunity to demonstrate their work and reflect on how it is changing our field.
In the European tradition, illuminated manuscripts and incunabula incorporated images, some of which conveyed messages related to the text and some of which were mere adornments.
By the late sixteenth century, linkage of image and print reached a kind of apotheosis with the publication of emblem books, in which each page consisted of an image, a motto, and a pithy verse that jointly communicated moral precepts. Reproductions of pictures of the main biographical figures referenced in a book or of other objects that figured prominently in the narrative appear in many historical works.
When the term visualization is used today, it usually refers to an image that is derived from processing information—often, but not always, statistical information—and that presents the information more efficiently than regular text could. Scholars quickly recognized the potential of computers to help process information and display the results in an easily interpreted format.
Visualizations created for the first use may or may not appear in visual form in the final product.
This essay is primarily concerned with visualizations as historical arguments in the second sense: It is slightly more ecumenical in defining visualizations than Staley is, in that it sees as forms of visual argument all uses of visual information to communicate an argument or narrative beyond the meaning of the words in text.
See the images in the web version of this essay at http: The key dimensions of a visualization are the density and the transparency of its information. Density is the sheer amount of useful information the visualization conveys, and transparency is the ease with which that information can be understood by the reader.
We have become so accustomed to the visual vocabulary of print books that we scarcely register the visual conventions on which almost all historical work relies, such as the footnote indicated by a small number or asterisk. By now, we are also perhaps so familiar with standard web-page layouts that we no longer notice most of the visual cues that indicate the site structure, especially the relation of one page to another achieved by hyperlink.
But many historians still have a print mentality when it comes to information-dense graphics. When designing graphics, authors have to consider how much background information the reader brings to the visualization.
The development of more complex visualizations has increased the gaps between expert and novice interpreters, which raises challenges for historians who seek the most effective visual approach. The problem of information density in visualizations is not a new one for historians.
Even the most conventional nineteenth-century political histories made use of three important visualizations: Daniel Rosenberg and Anthony Grafton have recently shown how experimentation with designs of chronologies helped produce the modern streamlined edition of the time line and information-rich variants by the end of the eighteenth century.
Processed numerical information was best expressed in tables, charts, and graphs. Mathematics, natural sciences, and social sciences that employed statistics were at the forefront of the development of charts and graphs. History was a consumer, not a designer, of most of these new visualizations—and mostly a sparing consumer at that, since economic and social history lagged behind political history as an area of research.
Simple charts and graphs, such as pie charts, line graphs, and histograms, were not difficult to interpret, and their visual conventions became part of what any ordinary reader would be expected to follow. As statistical analysis became more sophisticated, the visualizations that resulted became more and more central to the argument.
In some cases, the visualization made interpretation possible. These success stories demonstrated the worth of statistical analysis and visualization. Authors began to experiment with ways of using visual clues to tell complex stories about events, increasing the amount of information that could be conveyed in a small space and thereby overcoming the limitations of two dimensions in print.
The challenge for visualization is to be transparent, accurate, and rich in information. Carte Figurative, by Charles Joseph Minard As noted already, historians were mostly consumers of statistics-based visualizations from the social sciences, rather than innovators in constructing new kinds of visualizations.
The advent of cliometrics and Annaliste total history in the s forced more historians to become conversant with quantitative methods. Though the Annaliste approach to total history predated widespread use of the computer, much of the first wave of social scientific history relied on statistical packages like SPSS and SAS to process large amounts of data.
The most determinedly quantitative works often had several pages of tables, most of which would be referenced in the text, though not always at the precise page that made the link between text and table most obvious.
Instead of working as a driver of narrative, many of the tables and graphs produced in quantitative works of the s, s, and s sat inert on the page, functioning more like the biographical pictures included in early historical works than as an integral part of the argument.
Toggling between explication and evidence slowed reading considerably, so much so that readers of quantitative histories of the era sometimes broke into two broad groups: To be sure, many more historians developed the ability to rapidly interpret a greater variety of statistical representations.
A researcher using a scatter plot with a line of best fit or a Lorenz curve comparing inequalities might reasonably expect that most readers would be persuaded by the results visible in the charts, without requiring significant textual explication.
But most social histories continued to rely primarily on bar and line graphs as their most prominent visualizations. The fact that the statistical tools deployed often embedded assumptions that were inapplicable to the messiness of actual historical processes lent a false aura of scientific precision to very tentative conclusions.
Many explanations have been offered for the relative decline of social history since its heyday in the s. A failure of imagination in the integration of visualizations with text-based arguments may have contributed to the decline.In Writing History in the Digital Age, our proposition is simply that wisely implemented web technology can help us to collaboratively create, constructively criticize, and widely circulate our writing in ways more consistent with our scholarly values.
Our challenge was to openly test and demonstrate a different way of working together as. With its innovative content, captivating design, and practical advice, WRITING: A MANUAL FOR THE DIGITAL AGE WITH EXERCISES, BRIEF Second Edition, will help you learn to write effectively and confidently in situations that matter to heartoftexashop.coms: 7.
No this isn't New Age bull****. Picturing your grade will cement the grade in to your mind and you will usually begin to believe it's possible. Once you do that you'll naturally take inspired action.
Reading and writing has been transformed with the emergence of the digital age. There are various digital formats that affect the processes of reading and writing. Social media is a major force in the digital world. About Creative Writing in the Digital Age.
Creative Writing in the Digital Age explores the vast array of opportunities that technology provides the Creative Writing teacher, ranging from effective online workshop models to methods that blur the boundaries of genre. From social media tools such as Twitter and Facebook to more advanced software like .
This equipment might include: Electric meters (analogue or digital).7). The activity will require candidates to undertake practical work. stopclock or stopwatch. data processing and when writing reports.5/5(1).