Department of English as as Second Language Fulton Street, LM San Francisco, CA USA For trainees who are about to graduate and start working in 'the real world', an interesting option is to help them get in touch with some publishing houses so that they can get information on the latest teaching material on the market. Some addresses can be supplied by the teacher and they can also be encouraged to surf the Web to make further contacts. Other possibilities include writing to tourist boards, embassies, museums and charity organizations. Writing a Letter to the Author of a Story Short stories provide stimulating ways to explore the potentialities of the linguistic system, and their inclusion in the language class in English training centres is common practice nowadays.
It is a truism that one of the most important spin-offs of more communicatively oriented language learning and teaching has been the premium placed on the role of the learner in the language learning process see Wenden, It goes without saying, of course, that this shift of responsibility from teachers to learners does not exist in a vacuum, but is the result of a concatenation of changes to the curriculum itself towards a more learner-centred kind of learning.
What is more, this reshaping, so to speak, of teacher and learner roles has been conducive to a radical change in the age-old distribution of power and authority that used to plague the traditional classroom. At any rate, individual learners differ in their learning habits, interests, needs, and motivation, and develop varying degrees of independence throughout their lives Tumposky, For a definition of autonomy, we might quote Holec It is noteworthy that autonomy can be thought of in terms of a departure from education as a social process, as well as in terms of redistribution of power attending the construction of knowledge and the roles of the participants in the learning process.
Let us review some of these definitions and try to gain insights into what learner autonomy means and consists of. As has been intimated so far, the term autonomy has sparked considerable controversy, inasmuch as linguists and educationalists have failed to reach a consensus as to what autonomy really is.
It is not something done to learners; therefore, it is far from being another teaching method ibid. In the same vein, Leni Damcited in Gathercole, More specifically, she, like Holec, holds that someone qualifies as an autonomous learner when he independently chooses aims and purposes and sets goals; chooses materials, methods and tasks; exercises choice and purpose in organising and carrying out the chosen tasks; and chooses criteria for evaluation.
To all intents and purposes, the autonomous learner takes a pro- active role in the learning process, generating ideas and availing himself of learning opportunities, rather than simply reacting to various stimuli of the teacher Boud, ; Kohonen, ; Knowles, As we shall see, this line of reasoning operates within, and is congruent with, the theory of constructivism.
He is not one to whom things merely happen; he is the one who, by his own volition, causes things to happen. Learning is seen as the result of his own self-initiated interaction with the world.
Such "inventories" of characteristics evinced by the putative autonomous learner abound, and some would say that they amount to nothing more than a romantic ideal which does not square with reality. This stands to reason, for most of the characteristics imputed to the "autonomous learner" encapsulate a wide range of attributes not commonly associated with learners.
For instance, Benncited in Candy, Within the context of education, though, there seem to be seven main attributes characterising autonomous learners see Omaggio,cited in Wenden, Autonomous learners have insights into their learning styles and strategies; take an active approach to the learning task at hand; are willing to take risks, i.
Here, some comments with respect to the preceding list are called for. The points briefly touched upon above are necessary but not sufficient conditions for the development of learner autonomy, and many more factors such as learner needs, motivation, learning strategies, and language awareness have to be taken into consideration.
For example, the first point hinges upon a metalanguage that learners have to master in order to be regarded as autonomous, while points 4 and 7 pertain to learner motivation. It is of consequence to note that autonomy is a process, not a product. One does not become autonomous; one only works towards autonomy.This lesson will define and explain in detail what metacognitive strategies are and how they can be used in the classroom to help deepen students'.
Questions to Stimulate Metacognitive Reflection and Learning These questions can be used in class discussion, as a basis for reflective writing (prompts), or as part of class activities (teams and groups) 1) for class, 2) for assignments, 3) for tests, 4) for the course overall.
Writing-to-Learn activities encourage the kind of reflection on learning that improves students’ metacognitive skills. The key to effectively using writing activities in every subject. Learning Principles Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning.
The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning. Definitions. This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John H. Flavell ().. The term metacognition literally means cognition about cognition, or more informally, thinking about thinking.
Reflective practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively.